Idaho State is one of the fastest-growing states in America, and the population is rising. There are about 2,000 lakes and many rivers, but the most important resource is water. The Snake River provides abundant water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. This is why a large portion of the state's economy relies on water. In fact, it grows more potatoes than any other state. The state is home to several historical Native American cultures, including the Nez Perce in the north and the Shoshone in the south.
During the early nineteenth century, the territory was part of the Oregon Territory and the United States. This territory had disputed territorial status with Britain, but after the 1846 cession, the territory passed to the U.S. The discovery of gold in 1859 brought a rush of settlers. By 1863, Idaho Territory was formed, and became the 43rd state in 1890. The abundance of natural resources led to the state's nickname, the Gem State. Idaho's motto is "Esto Perpetua", which means "Perpetual State."
The population of Idaho is estimated to be 1,429,096 in the year 2005. This is an increase of 33,956 over the previous year and 135,140 since the year 2000. This increase can be attributed to two factors. First, Idaho's population increased because of natural growth, or the number of births minus deaths. The second factor is migration, which grew by 71,745 people within the state and from other states.