The most significant geographic features of the state of Georgia include the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the state's borders with Florida on the south and the southern tip of Alabama to the west. The state's eastern boundary is bordered by the Chattahoochee River, which forms much of the southern portion of the state. The capital of Atlanta is located in the southern part of the state.
In terms of demographics, Georgia ranks seventh in the South. According to the 2010 census, the state has a total population of 420,003, with a population of 226,894 blacks and 1,084 American Indians and Alaska Natives. Other ethnic groups include whites, Asians, Hispanics, and American Indians. A median age of 31.9 years is recorded for all residents, and a higher percentage of people are older than the state's average, which is 33.8.
The state's history dates back to the late 18th century, when cheap land made it possible for Europeans and American settlers to settle in Georgia. Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin made cotton-cleaning easier and cheaper, and by the mid-1820s, Georgia was the world's largest cotton-growing state. Because of the need for labor, slavery was booming in the south, and Savannah became a major slave trade center. Most slaves were imported from West Africa. By the Civil War, African Americans constituted more than half of the state's population.
Atlanta is the state's largest city and has an enormous effect on the state and the entire Southeastern United States. Georgia has numerous industries, including manufacturing, banking, textiles, and information technology. Many large corporations are headquartered in Atlanta, including Coca-Cola, Home Depot, Primerica, and Waffle House. The economy of Georgia is primarily dependent on Atlanta, with the state's major cities generating over one-third of the state's GDP.